An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak, Iran


Nuclear radiations are harmful to the human body. The main sources of nuclear radiation are the decay chains of U-238, U-235, and Th-232 and also some radionuclides as K-40, which are present in small amounts in the materials of the earth's crust, including plants, rocks, soil and water. Radioactive substances are transferred to the human body in a variety of ways, including plant and animal products. Therefore, it is very important to determine the amount of radioactive substances in food products. In this research, seven samples of pistachios with different types were collected from Tehran markets in Iran. In this project, ultra-pure germanium spectroscopy system model GCD30195 was used. The specific activities of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 varied from ‎<1.96‎‎ to 9.86, from 1.21 to 1.95, and from 317.22 to 382.80  The artificial radionuclide of Cs-137 in all samples was lower than minimum detectable value (MDA). Calculations of the radiological impact showed that consumption of pistachios would endanger human health. The results of this study also showed that the amount of natural radionuclides in pistachio cores is higher than pistachio shells.


  • Measurement of natural radionuclides in some popular variety of pistachios.
  • Calculation of radiometric parameters for these varieties.
  • Comparison of them contains with other reported work from other countries.
  • Provided discussion about of radiological indices.
  • Comparing of radionuclides absorption in point of varieties


Main Subjects

Abda, J. M., Abullah, K. O., Hussein, A. M., et al. (2020). Measurement of natural radioactivity concentrations in walnut collected from different markets in Sulaimanya city-Kurdistan region-Iraq. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, volume 871, page 012075. IOP Publishing.
Abojassim, A. A. and Hashem, R. H. (2019). Measurement of natural radioactivity in certain types of nut samples in Iraq. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics, 16(2):120–125.
DOC (2017). Life Expectancy for Countries.
EC, E. (1999). Radiation Protection 112: Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection.
Ezzulddin, S. K., Ahmed, A. H., Samad, A. I., et al. (2017). Radioactivity measurement of nuts and seeds available in Erbil city markets. In AIP Conference Proceedings, volume 1888, page 020022. AIP Publishing LLC.
Firestone, R. B., Shirley, V. S., Baglin, C. M., et al. (1997). The 8thedition of the Table of Isotopes. In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Capture gamma-ray spectroscopy and related topics. V. 2.
Gilmore, G. and Hemingway, J. (2008). Practical gamma ray spectrometry, John Willey and Sons. Inc, Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
Higley, K. A. (2006). Effects of radioactivity on plants and animals. In Radionuclide Concentrations in Food and the Environment, pages 209–224. CRC Press.
IAEA (2004). Compliance Monitoring for remediated site, IAEA-TECDOC-1415, IAEA, VIENNA. International Atomic Energy Agency.
IAEA (2011). Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. IAEA Safety standards series no GSR Part 3 (Interim), TI/PUB/1531: 190219. International Atomic Energy Agency.
IAEA (2016). Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water. IAEA-TECDOC-1788. International Atomic Energy Agency.
Inuyomi, S. O., Ore, O. T., and Abiodun, O. P. (2019). Evaluation of the natural radioactivity levels and radiological assessment of nuts commonly consumed in Ile-Ife, South West, Nigeria. Journal of Radiation Science and Technology, 5(2):15–19.
MAJ (2019). Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad.
Mohebian, M. and Pourimani, R. (2020). Specific activity and radiation hazard of radionuclides in wheat and bean produced near Shazand, Iran. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics, 17(6):394–400.
Pawel, D., Leggett, R., Eckerman, K., et al. (2007). Uncertainties in cancer risk coefficients for environmental exposure to radionuclides. ORNL/TM-2006/583, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Pourimani, R. and Anoosheh, F. (2015). A study on transfer factors of environmental radionuclides: radionuclide transfer from soil to different varieties of rice in Gorgan, Iran. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics, 12(3):189–199.
Pourimani, R. and Asadpour, F. (2016). Determination of Specific Activities of Radionuclides in Soil and Their Transfer Factor from Soil to Bean and Calculation of Cancer Risk for Bean Consumption in Iran. Arak Medical University Journal (AMUJ), 19(107):9–18.
Pourimani, R. and Mohebian, M. (2021). Study of Background Correction of Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Using Reference Materials. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science, 45(2):733–736.
Pourimani, R. and Mortazavi Shahroudi, S. M. (2018). Radiological assessment of the artificial and natural radionuclide concentrations of wheat and barley samples in Karbala, Iraq. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics, 15(2):126–131.
Raw, P. (2012). Composition of foods raw, processed, prepared usda national nutrient database for standard reference, release 25. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
UNSCEAR, S. (1988). Effects and risks of ionizing radiation. United Nations, New York, pages 565–571. UNSCEAR, U. (2008). Report of the United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation, sources, effects, and risks of ionizing radiation. United Nations salespublication, New York. United Nations