An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article



2 Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan


Gamma radiation indicators are appropriate tools for monitoring visually whether or not the irradiation process has been carried out properly. Among chemical radiation indicators available worldwide, a few are suitable for monitoring low dose ranges (especially for blood irradiation, below 50 Gy). Addressing this scope, PVA-Fricke gel was proposed in this work. Irradiation of the prepared PVA-Fricke gel samples was performed by Co-60 gamma cell unit up to a dose of 80 Gy. Color change of the samples was observed from orange to purple proportional to increasing absorbed dose. Prepared samples were divided into three groups, kept at different environmental conditions, to investigate stability of the gel against temperature and light. Results revealed that the irradiated samples kept at dark and refrigerator were stable for seven days. Optical absorbance measurement of the samples also estimated pre-and post-irradiation color stability. The gel can be easily used to identify processed and unprocessed products in blood irradiation. Although the gel is designed to be a qualitative indicator, it is also a good quantitative dosimeter for gamma rays.


  • PVA-Fricke gel was proposed as a gamma radiation indicator for blood irradiators.
  • Color change of the samples was observed from orange to purple proportional to increasing absorbed dose.
  • Irradiated samples kept at dark and refrigerator were stable for seven days.
  • The proposed gel is also a good quantitative dosimeter for gamma rays.


Main Subjects

Abdel-Fattah, A., Abdel-Rehim, F., and Soliman, Y. (2012). A new label dosimetry system based on pentacosa-diynoic acid monomer for low dose applications. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 81(1):70–76.
Abdel-Fattah, A. and Soliman, Y. (2017). Performance improvement of pentacosa-diynoic acid label dosimeter for radiation processing technology. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 141:66–72.
Edalatkhah, E. (2020). Assessment of chemical yield of Fricke gel dosimeters. Technical report, Nuclear conference of Iran: Proceedings.
Edalatkhah, E. and Rezaeian, P. (2018). Fricke Gel Dose Indicators Applicable for Blood Irradiators. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics, 15(Special Issue-12th. Iranian Congress of Medical Physics):8–8.
Farajzadeh, E. and Sina, S. (2021). Developing a radiochromic dosimeter for dosimetry in blood irradiation chambers. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 188:109637.
Fricke, H. and Morse, S. (1927). The chemical action of roentgen rays on dilute ferrosulphate solutions as a measure of dose. Am. J. Roentgenol. Radium Therapy Nucl. Med, 18:430–432.
Gallo, S., Artuso, E., Brambilla, M. G., et al. (2019). Characterization of radiochromic poly(vinyl-alcohol)-glutaraldehyde Fricke gels for dosimetry in external x-ray radiation therapy. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 52(22):225601.
Gammatex (2023). Chemical Sterilization Indicators. Technical Data Sheet. Product code: METOYR. Technical report, METOYR.
ISO-11140-1 (2021). Sterilization of health care products-Chemical indicators-Part 1: General requirements. Technical report, ANSI.
ISO-14470 (2011). Food irradiation requirements for the development, validation and routine control of the process of irradiation using ionizing radiation for the treatment of food. Technical report, ANSI.
ISO/ASTM-51539 (2003). Guidance for use of radiation-sensitive indicators. Technical report, ANSI.
ISO/ASTM-51939 (2017). Practice for blood irradiation dosimetry. Technical report, ANSI.
Marrale, M., Collura, G., Gallo, S., et al. (2017). Analysis of spatial diffusion of ferric ions in PVA-GTA gel dosimeters through magnetic resonance imaging. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 396:50–55.
Mittal, A., Natanasabapathi, G., Verma, A., et al. (2021). Development and dosimetric characterization of novel amide substituted diacetylene based radiochromic films for medical radiation dosimetry. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 182:109391.
Patel, G. (1981). Diacetylenes as radiation dosage indicators. Radiation Physics and Chemistry (1977), 18(5-6):913–925.
Rahim, F. A., Miller, A., and McLaughlin, W. (1985). Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons. Radiation Physics and Chemistry (1977), 25(4-6):767–775.
Schreiner, L. (2004). Review of Fricke gel dosimeters. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 3, page 9. IOP Publishing.
Soliman, Y. S., Abdel-Fattah, A., Hamed, A., et al. (2018). A radiation-sensitive monomer of 2, 4-hexadiyn-1, 6-bis (p-toluene sulphonyl urethane) in PVA as a radiochromic film dosimeter. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 144:56–62.
Widodo, P., Harahap, M., Listyarini, A., et al. (2019). A Paper Label Made from Carmoisine Dyes as a Radiochromic Indicator for Gamma Rays. Materials Today: Proceedings, 13:41–46.
Wolfel, A., Chacón, D., Romero, M. R., et al. (2021). Synthesis of a metal chelating monomer for radiation polymer dosimetry. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 180:109295.