Use the following template to cite all citations in the text using the APA citation style:
IN -TEXT CITATIONS:
- Using APA format, follow the author-date in-text citation procedure. This means that the author's last name and the source's year of publication should appear in the text, eg (Jones, 1998). The in-text citations format depends on the number of the authors as following.
- Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
- A full reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the article.
- “…as demonstrated (Mahdavi, 2015a, 2015b, 2016; Mahdavi and Ghorbani, 1999)…”
- “Alavi et al. (2010) have recently shown ....”
REFERNCES LIST FORMAT:
The reference list provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; as the same way, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
- All authors' names should be inverted (i.e., last names should be provided first). Authors' first and middle names should be written as initials.
- References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
- Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 3 authors. Separate each author’s initials from the next author in the list with a comma.
- Use “and” before the last author’s name
Basic Rules for Articles in Academic journals
- Present journal titles in full and Italicize journal titles.
- Capitalize all major words in the titles of journals.
- Capitalize the first word of the titles and subtitles of journal articles.
- Do not italicize or underline the article title.
- Do not enclose the article title in quotes.
Examples of references in academic journals:
Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication:
Masoudi, S.F. (2010). The method of writing a scientific article. Radiation Physics and Engineering 163: 51–59.
Two or three authors: All of the authors' names (put “and’ before the last name) and the year of publication:
Masoudi, S.F., Rahmani, F. and Rasouli, F.S. (2010). The method of writing a scientific article. Radiation Physics and Engineering 163: 51–59.
More than three authors: first three authors’ name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
Masoudi, S.F., Rahmani, F. and Rasouli, F.S., et. al. (2010). The method of writing a scientific article. Radiation Physics and Engineering 163: 51–59.
FORMAT FOR BOOKS
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of the work. Publisher Name.
For edited book without author:
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.
For edited book with an author (or authors):
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. (E. Editor, Ed.). Publisher.
For translated book:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. (T. Translator, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published YEAR)
For edition other than the first:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. (# edition). Publisher.
For chapter (or article) in an edited book:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In G. G. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of work. (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. (Vol. #). Publisher.
**If the title contains subtitle, it must be written by capital letter too. DOI must be added to the reference if available.
FORMAT FOR WEBPAGE OR ONLINE CONTENT:
If the page names an individual author are available, cite their name first:
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL
For resource was written by a group or organization, use the name of the group/organization as the author.
Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL
If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
Author or Group name. (n.d.). Title of page. Site name (if applicable). URL
FORMAT FOR DESERTATION/THESIS FROM A DATABASE
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.
FORMAT FOR DATA SET:
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL
FORMAT FOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE:
Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL
For example: Maplesoft. (2019). Maple companion (Version 2.1.0). Cybernet Systems Co. https://www.maplesoft.com/products/MapleCompanion/
REFERENCE TO arXiv:
As with unpublished results and personal communications, references to arXiv documents are not recommended in the reference list. Please make every effort to obtain the full reference of the published version of an arXiv document. If a reference to an arXiv document must be included in the references list it should follow the standard reference style of the journal .
For example: Author A.A, and Author B.B. Article title. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/aaaaaaa/bbbbbb (Year).