A peer-reviewed journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Physics‎, ‎Faculty of Science‎, ‎University of Guilan‎, ‎Postal Code 4193833697‎, ‎Rasht‎, ‎Iran


Radiation therapy aims to maximize doses to cancer cells while minimizing damage to normal tissues. Today, nanoparticles containing high-atomic-number elements, such as gold, gadolinium, and silver, have proven effective as radiosensitizers in radiotherapy to enhance dose delivery for cancer treatment. In this study, we used the Geant4-DNA toolkit to investigate the effects of multiple nanoparticles (NPs) with varying sizes (radius= 3.15 to 5 nm) on DNA damage when exposed to monoenergetic photons with energies of 15, 40, 50, and 68 keV. Direct and indirect single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs), and hybrid double-strand breaks (Hybrid DSBs) were calculated in the presence and absence of 1 to 4 nanoparticles (NPs) of the same total volume of gold, gadolinium, and silver nanoparticles for the 1ZBB model (selected from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) library). The results show that increasing the number of gold, gadolinium, and silver NPs and decreasing the photon beam energy increases the total number of strand breaks. Furthermore, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are more effective options than gadolinium nanoparticles (GdNPs), and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) for inhibiting and controlling cancer cells.


  • Effect of the presence different nanoparticles in the vicinity of a DNA is evaluated.
  • Gold nanoparticles can cause more DNA damage than gadolinium and silver nanoparticles.
  • Increasing the number of nanoparticles results in more DNA damage.


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