A peer-reviewed journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Physics‎, ‎K.N‎. ‎Toosi University of Technology‎, ‎Tehran‎, ‎Iran

2 Radiation Application Research School‎, ‎Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute‎, ‎Tehran‎, ‎Iran


In this research work, commercial beta-tricalcium phosphate powder is converted into tablets by pressure-less sintering method. Thermoluminescence responses of tablet and powder samples in the dose range of 20 to 1500 Gy have been compared and effective factors in tablet conversion such as mass in the range of 30 to 60 mg, force between 1 to 3 N, concentration of granulating solution and tablet diameter in the range of 0.4 to 15 mm are investigated based on the results of dosimetric response and tablet hardness. The results show that by turning into tablets, the grain size increases, and the possibility of the first-order kinetics increases by the conversion of powders into tablets. It is possible to achieve a better dosimetric response than the it’s powder by applying suitable conditions for turning into tablets; also, the diameter of the sample can affect hardness, and it is better to make the tablets with a smaller size. Based on the results obtained from fading, reproducibility, sensitivity, peak shaping of the glow curve, and microhardness measurement, it can be seen that the samples that have been subjected to less pressure perform better and in order to achieve the desired results of converting to TLD dosimetry tablets, it is better to use more mass for tablets if more pressure is needed.


  • Conversion of commercial β-TCP powder into tablets by pressure-less sintering method.
  • Comparison of TL response of tablet and powder samples in the dose range of 20 to 1500 Gy.
  • Investigating the effects of fading, reproducibility, sensitivity, formation of the peaks, and microhardness measurement.
  • Increasing the grain size by turning it into tablets.
  • Increasing probability of first-order kinetics with tablet conversion


Main Subjects

Abbasisiar, F., Abdolmaleki, P., Haeri, A., et al. (2018). Evaluation of public exposure in high background natural radiation areas (HBNRAs) of Ramsar. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 7(5):15–22.
Adachi, M., Bredow, T., and Jug, K. (2004). What is the origin of color on metal complex dyes? Theoretical analysis of a Ni-coordinate azo dye. Dyes and Pigments, 63(3):225–230.
Al-Qahtani, A. S., Tulbah, H. I., Binhasan, M., et al. (2022). Influence of Concentration Levels of β-Tricalcium Phosphate on the Physical Properties of a Dental Adhesive. Nanomaterials, 12(5):853.
Alam, M. S. and Bauk, S. (2010). The Effect of the Activation Energy, Frequency Factor and the Initial Concentration of Filled Traps on the TL Glow Curves of Thermoluminescence. Adv. Studies Theor. Phys, 4:665–678.
Alencar, M. A. (2009). The TL and OSL study of hydroxyapatites for dosimetric applications.
Alipour, A., Sarabadani, P., et al. (2016). Study of UV ray effective on TLD-500 as a chip and nano powder. Iranian Journal of Radiation Safety and Measurement, 4(4):9–14.
Alvarez, R., Rivera, T., Guzman, J., et al. (2014). Thermoluminescent characteristics of synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHAp). Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 83:192–195. ASTM (2006). Standard practice for using the Fricke reference-standard dosimetry system.
Baradaran, S., Mianji, F., and Hajizadeh, B. (2022). Comparison of the response and behavior of TL neutron-gamma dosimeters used in individual dosimetry system for 241Am-Be and Cf-252 sources. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 2(1):27–32.
Choopan Dastjerdi, M. H. and Mokhtari, J. (2020). Estimation of neutron and gamma dose in the MNSR research reactor. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 9(4):53–58.
Danaei, Z., Pooya, S. H., Gharehbagh, E. J., et al. (2021). Assessment of whole body, skin and eye lens doses of the interventional radiologists at selected hospitals in Iran. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 193(3-4):170–175.
Daneshvar, H., Manouchehri, F., Shafaei, M., et al. (2019a). Study on Effects of Hydroxyapatite Synthesis Conditions Using Hydrothermal Method on its Thermoluminescence Response from Dosimetry Viewpoint. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 8(2):49–55.
Daneshvar, H., Shafaei, M., Manouchehri, F., et al. (2019b). The role of La, Eu, Gd, and Dy lanthanides on thermoluminescence characteristics of nano-hydroxyapatite induced by gamma radiation. SN Applied Sciences, 1:1–11.
Daneshvar, H., Shafaei, M., Manouchehri, F., et al. (2020a). Influence of morphology and chemical processes on thermoluminescence response of irradiated nanostructured hydroxyapatite. Journal of Luminescence, 219:116906.
Daneshvar, H. D., Ziaie, F. Z., Kakaei, S., et al. (2020b). Investigating Effect of Different Hydrothermal Conditions on the Size and Form of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles. Iranian Journal of Chemistry, 2(2):211–218.
Dodd, P. E. and Massengill, L. W. (2003). Basic mechanisms and modeling of single event upset in digital microelectronics. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 50(3):583–602.
Dorozhkin, S. (2017). Calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4): occurrence and properties. Morphologie, 101(334):125–142.
Eichholz, G. G. (2003). Dosimetry for food irradiation.
Essabir, H., Bouhfid, R., et al. (2019). Fracture surface morphologies in understanding of composite structural behavior. In Structural health monitoring of biocomposites, fibre reinforced composites and hybrid composites, pages 277-293. Elsevier.
Furetta, C. (2010). Handbook of thermoluminescence. World Scientific.
Ghovvati, M. and Manouchehri, F. (2014). Analyzing the dose response curves for lithium fluoride powder (LiF) in different mesh size induced by Gamma beam for using in thermoluminescence dosimetry. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 3(2):9–12.
Harooni, S. and Akbari, S. (2022). Investigation of sensitivity loss and recovery method of CaF2: Mn (TLD-400) thermoluminescent dosimeter irradiated to high gamma dose. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 11(3):141–148.
Harooni, S., Zahedifar, M., and Ahmadian, Z. (2022). Determination of thermal quenching parameters of TLD-100 dosimeter. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 5(1):29–34.
Hosseini Pooya, S. and Dashtipour, M. (2018). Dosimetric aspects of optimization of protection in Iran industrial radiography practice. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 181(3):255–260.
Kashian, S., Daneshvar, H., Rezaeian, P., et al. (2022). Investigation of the response of chromium nitrate solutions as a chemical dosimeter for agricultural applications. Radiation Physics and Engineering, 3(1):43–47.
Madhukumar, K., Varma, H., Komath, M., et al. (2007). Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of tricalcium phosphate phosphors doped with dysprosium and europium. Bulletin of Materials Science, 30:527–534.
Mazhdi, M., Torkzadeh, F., and Mazhdi, F. (2012). Optical, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties investigation of ZnO and Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals. Int. J. Bio-Inorg. Hybrid Nanomater, 1:233–241.
Mehnati, P., Malekzadeh, R., Yousefi-Sooteh, M., et al. (2019). Comparing X-ray dose reduction capability of silicon-bismuth micro-and nanocomposite shields using chest CT test. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 8(3):35–40.
Moghadam, N. N., Pooya, S. H., Afarideh, H., et al. (2016). Response of TLD and RPL personal dosimeters in a national inter-comparison test program. International Journal of Radiation Research, 14(1):73–76.
Munir, M. T. and Federighi, M. (2020). Control of foodborne biological hazards by ionizing radiations. Foods, 9(7):878.
Nakashima, K., Takami, M., Ohta, M., et al. (2005). Thermoluminescence mechanism of dysprosium-doped β-tricalcium phosphate phosphor. Journal of luminescence, 111(1-2):113–120.
Panjnoush, M., Shokri, A., Hosseini Pouya, M., et al. (2009). Comparison of radiation absorbed dose in target organs in maxillofacial imaging with panoramic, conventional linear tomography, cone beam computed tomography and computed tomography. J Dent Med Tehran Univ Med Sci, 22(3):113–9.
Pourshahab, B., Rasouli, C., Hosseini Pooya, S., et al. (2013). Dose measurement of hard x-ray produced by damavand tokamak by means of LiF: Mg, Cu, P TLDs. Journal of Fusion Energy, 32:451–456.
Sadat-Shojai, M., Khorasani, M.-T., Dinpanah-Khoshdargi, E., et al. (2013). Synthesis methods for nanosized hydroxya patite with diverse structures. Acta biomaterialia, 9(8):7591–7621.
Sadeghi, E., Zahedifar, M., and Mehrabi, M. (2022). The separation of gamma and neutron doses inmixed gamma-neutron radiation fieldusingˆI±-Al2O3: C (TLD-500) dosimeter. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 3(1):13–18.
Shafaei, M., Ziaie, F., and Hajiloo, N. (2016). Thermoluminescence properties of micro and nano structure hydroxyapatite after gamma irradiation. Kerntechnik, 81(6):651–654.
Shafaei, M., Ziaie, F., Sardari, D., et al. (2015). Study on carbonated hydroxyapatite as a thermoluminescence dosimeter. Kerntechnik, 80(1):66–69.
Shafiqah, A. S., Amin, Y., Nor, R. M., et al. (2015). Effect of particle size on the thermoluminescence (TL) response of silica nanoparticles. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 117:102–107.
Sripathy, A. P. and Gupta, M. (2021). Insight Into Layered Metal Matrix Composites.
Taghipour, N. P., Zolfagharpour, F., Ziaie, F., et al. (2023). Synthesis of hydroxyapatite doped with single and compound dopants and study upon the effect of crystal phase on its thermoluminescence response irradiated by gamma rays.
Taghipour, P., Zolfagharpour, F., and Daneshvar, H. (2022a). Synthesis of hydroxyapatite through solid-state reaction method and study of its thermoluminesence dosimetric properties against gamma rays. Radiation Physics and Engineering, 3(2):7–10.
Taghipour, P., Zolfagharpour, F., Daneshvar, H., et al. (2022b). Thermoluminescence dose–response of synthesized and doped hydroxyapatite: Effect of formed crystal phases. Luminescence, 37(5):742–757.
Torkzadeh, F. and Jafarizadeh, M. (2015). Measurement of thermal neutron induced gamma dose in TLD-700. Radiation Safety and Measurement, 4(4):33–36.