A peer-reviewed journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Physics‎, ‎Payame Noor University‎, ‎P‎. ‎O‎. ‎Box 19395-3697‎, ‎Tehran‎, ‎Iran

2 Department of Nuclear Engineering‎, ‎Faculty of Sciences and Modern Technologies‎, ‎Graduate University of Advanced Technology‎, ‎Kerman‎, ‎Iran


High-energy heavy ions produced by accelerators are used in industrial and medical applications. Recently carbon ions have been used in the treatment of cancerous tumors. Heavy ions by the spallation process will activate the soft tissue components before tumors. In this research by GEANT4 toolkit and MCNPX code simulation were tried to calculate the secondary particles and radioactive elements produced in the soft tissue around tumors by the carbon ions spallation process. In the MCNPX code, the F8 tally card with the FT8 command was used to extract the activation and spallation information of secondary particles in the Z1=1 to Z2=25 atomic numbers range. It was shown that a wide range of radioactive elements was produced in healthy tissues in carbon therapy. addition to produced secondary particles, the Be-10 and C-14 radioactive elements were produced in high-energy carbon ions in soft tissue. Also, the GEANT4 toolkit result of produced secondary particles dosimetry was shown that the secondary particles dose per carbon ion is between 1.66 to 33.54 nGy for carbon ion energy between 1140 to 5160 MeV. The tail for 3480, 4080, and 5160 MeV of carbon ion energy are 0.12,1.01 and 11 cm respectively. The carbon ion beam divergence increases with beam energy and achieve to 33 mm for 5160 MeV carbon ion.


  • Secondary particle production of carbon ions in soft tissue by Geant4 toolkit and MCNPX code.
  • Calculation of radioactive elements production by carbon ions in soft tissue.
  • Calculation the range, beam divergence and beam Tail of carbon ion in soft tissue.
  • Calculation of secondary particle Dosimetry production by carbon ion in soft tissue.


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