An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Physics, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran


In recent years, various designs for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on the p11B reaction have been reviewed and optimized. In this article, to innovate in achieving a better power and energy gain of neutron-free p11B fusion reaction, the improvement of the cross-section and also the kinetic effects. Then, the effects of bremsstrahlung radiation and ion and electron energy exchange rate have been evaluated by introducing relativistic effects and its role on improving fusion energy gain. As a result, the temperature of the electron is kept lower than that of the ion, which improves fuel performance. Finally, it leads to an increase in the number of protons at higher energies compared to the pure Maxwellian distribution and it causes a significant increase in reactivity compared to previous research. Also, the number of alpha particles obtained through calculations coincides with the latest research and leads to an enhancement of approximately 13%. This means that by improving the fusion cross-section of p11B, our calculations show that considering the avalanche effects, the range of achievable energy gain in the temperature range of 300 to 500 keV and the stable characteristic time of 0.64 ps reaches 89 to 111. While in the same temperature range and with the stable characteristic time of 0.74 ps, regardless of the improved cross-section, the energy gain range is 75 to 98.


  • We used as the role of avalanche kinetics of protons effects on the increasing of amount of energy gain for p11B fuel.
  • The effects of bremsstrahlung radiation and ion and electron energy exchange rate have been evaluated.
  • The temperature of the electron is kept lower than that of the ion, which improves fuel performance
  • The number of alpha particles obtained coincides with the latest research and leads to an enhancement of about 13%.


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