An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


Faculty of Physics‎, ‎University of Isfahan‎, ‎81746-73441‎, ‎Isfahan‎, ‎Iran


In this work, neutron and gamma shielding were simulated using MCNPX code for an inertial electrostatic confinement Fusion (IECF) device. In this regard, various properties of shields were investigated. Portland reinforced concrete was considered as the first layer. In addition to being effective in reducing the dosage of fast neutrons, concrete layer was also considerably effective in reducing the dose of gamma rays. As for the second and third layers, we opted for paraffin and boric acid based. These layers were chosen based on parameters such as lethargy, macroscopic slowing down power (MSDP), etc. in order to reduce the speed of epithermal neutrons and then absorb the thermal neutrons, thus reducing the transmitted neutron dosage as much as possible. A layer lead was used after these three layers of shielding to attenuate the gamma ray reaching this layer. In this study, a fusion source based on D-T fuel with homogeneous and isotropic radiation of neutrons was used and then dosimetry was performed for different parts. Afterwards, the thickness of the shielding layers was optimized in such a way that the neutron and gamma doses were reduced according to the standards. We found that it is possible to achieve safe neutron and gamma fluxes and doses by applying about 5 layers of 50 cm thickness. We compared the results of our study with the those of another study done on shielding for the IECF device, which were in good agreement.


  • Neutron and gamma shielding by layer method for IECF device.
  • Calculation of necessary parameters and selection of suitable materials.
  • Simulation of IECF device and its shield using MCNPX code.
  • Dosimetry of di erent parts of the shield and the human environment.
  • Dose Reduction of di erent parts to standard values and determining the optimal thickness for the shield


Asadi, A. and Hosseini, S. A. (2021). Investigation of the gamma-ray shielding performance of the B2O3-Bi2O3-ZnO- Li2O glasses based on the Monte Carlo approach. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 189:109784.
Bell, G. and Glasstone, S. (1970). Nuclear reactor theory (No. TID-25606). US Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC, US.
Bevelacqua, J. and Mortazavi, S. (2020). Neutron shielding concrete in medical applications. In Micro and Nanostructured Composite Materials for Neutron Shielding Applications, pages 219–237. Elsevier.
Bhattacharjee, D., Buzarbaruah, N., Mohanty, S., et al. (2020). Kinetic characteristics of ions in an inertial electrostatic confinement device. Physical Review E, 102(6):063205.
Black, J., Wood-Thanan, M., Maroni, A., et al. (2021). Study of inertial electrostatic confinement fusion using a finite-volume scheme for the one-dimensional Vlasov equation. Physical Review E, 103(2):023212.
Buzarbaruah, N., Dutta, N., Bhardwaz, J., et al. (2015). Design of a linear neutron source. Fusion Engineering and Design, 90:97–104.
Buzarbaruah, N., Dutta, N., Borgohain, D., et al. (2017). Study on discharge plasma in a cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device. Physics Letters A, 381(30):2391–2396.
Buzarbaruah, N., Mohanty, S., and Hotta, E. (2018). A study on neutron emission from a cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement device. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 911:66–73.
Chan, Y.-A. and Herdrich, G. (2019). Jet extraction and characterization in an inertial electrostatic confinement device. Vacuum, 167:482–489.
Damideh, V., Sadighzadeh, A., Koohi, A., et al. (2012). Experimental study of the Iranian inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device as a continuous neutron generator. Journal of Fusion energy, 31:109–111.
De Vries, P. and Gribov, Y. (2019). Iter breakdown and plasma initiation revisited. Nuclear Fusion, 59(9):096043.
DiJulio, D., Cooper-Jensen, C. P., Björgvinsdóttir, H., et al. (2016). High-energy in-beam neutron measurements of metal-based shielding for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources. Physical Review Accelerators and Beams, 19(5):053501.
El-Toony, M., Eid, G., Algarni, H., et al. (2020). Synthesis and characterisation of smart poly vinyl ester/Pb2O3 nanocomposite for gamma radiation shielding. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 168:108536.
ENDF (2022). Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF). International Atomic Energy Agency.
Farnsworth, P. T. (1966). Electric discharge device for producing interactions between nuclei. US Patent 3,258,402.
Gueibe, C., Rutten, J., Camps, J., et al. (2022). Application of silver-exchanged zeolite for radioxenon mitigation at fission-based medical isotope production facilities. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 158:576–588.
Hu, G., Hu, H., Yang, Q., et al. (2020). Study on the design and experimental verification of multilayer radiation shield against mixed neutrons and γ-rays. Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 52(1):178–184.
Hubbell, J. H. and Seltzer, S. M. (1995). Tables of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients 1 keV to 20 MeV for elements Z= 1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest. Technical report, National Inst. of Standards and Technology-PL, Gaithersburg, MD.
Ka¸ cal, M., Akman, F., and Sayyed, M. (2019). Evaluation of gamma-ray and neutron attenuation properties of some polymers. Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 51(3):818–824.
Lamarsh, J. R. (1966). Introduction to nuclear reactor theory. Addison-Wesley.
Lee, S. M., Yoriyaz, H., Cabral, E. L., et al. (2020). Development of neutron shielding for an inertial electrostatic confinement nuclear fusion device.
Mesbahi, A. and Ghiasi, H. (2018). Shielding properties of the ordinary concrete loaded with micro-and nano-particles against neutron and gamma radiations. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 136:27–31.
Miley, G. H. and Murali, S. K. (2014). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion. Fundamentals and Applications.
Naseri, A. and Mesbahi, A. (2010). A review on photoneutrons characteristics in radiation therapy with high-energy photon beams. Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy, 15(5):138–144.
Nasrabadi, M. and Baghban, G. (2013). Neutron shielding design for241Am–Be neutron source considering different sites to achieve maximum thermal and fast neutron flux using MCNPX code. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 59:47–52.
Okuno, K. (2005). Neutron shielding material based on colemanite and epoxy resin. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 115(1-4):258–261.
Pelowitz, D. B. et al. (2013). MCNP6 users manual version 1.0. Los Alamos National Security, USA.
Pomaro, B., Gramegna, F., Cherubini, R., et al. (2019). Gamma-ray shielding properties of heavyweight concrete with Electric Arc Furnace slag as aggregate: An experimental and numerical study. Construction and Building Materials, 200:188–197.
Salehizadeh, A. and Nasrabadi, M. (2021). Modeling of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device processes for 3He–3He interactions. Vacuum, 188:110171.
Santosa, S. and Anggraini, A. (2018). Moderator material efficiency of neutron energy slowing down on D-T reaction neutron generator for SAMOP. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, volume 432, page 012025. IOP Publishing.
Sariyer, D. and Kü¸ cer, R. (2018). Development of neutron shielding concrete containing iron content materials. In AIP Conference Proceedings, volume 1935, page 100003. AIP Publishing LLC.
Sariyer, D. and Kü¸ cer, R. (2020). Effect of different materials to concrete as neutron shielding application. Acta Phys. Pol. A, 137(4):477.
Sazali, M. A., Rashid, N. K. A. M., and Hamzah, K. (2019). A review on multilayer radiation shielding. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, volume 555, page 012008. IOP Publishing.
Schmidt, A., Link, A., Welch, D., et al. (2014). Comparisons of dense-plasma-focus kinetic simulations with experimental measurements. Physical Review E, 89(6):061101.
Semsari, S., Zakeri, A., Sadighzadeh, A., et al. (2013). Comparison of high-energy He+ and D+ irradiation impact on tungsten surface in the IR-IECF device. Journal of Fusion Energy, 32:142–149.
Singh, V. P., Badiger, N., and Vega-Carrillo, H. R. (2015). Neutron kerma coefficients of compounds for shielding and dosimetry. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 75:189–192.
Spaeth, M. L., Manes, K. R., Bowers, M., et al. (2016). National ignition facility laser system performance. Fusion Science and Technology, 69(1):366–394.
Stone, M. B., Crow, L., Fanelli, V. R., et al. (2019). Characterization of shielding materials used in neutron scattering instrumentation. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 946:162708.
Stults, K. A. and Karpius, P. J. (2021). Effects of Shielding on Gamma Rays. Technical report, Los Alamos National Lab.(LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States).
Syring, C. and Herdrich, G. (2017). Jet extraction modes of inertial electrostatic confinement devices for electric propulsion applications. Vacuum, 136:177–183.
Werner, C. (2017). MCNP Users Manual-Code Version 6.2(Report, LA-UR-17-29981). New Mexico: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Werner, C. J., Bull, J., Solomon, C., et al. (2018). MCNP6. 2 release notes. Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Zakalek, P., Li, J., Böhm, S., et al. (2021). Tailoring neutron beam properties by target-moderator-reflector optimisation. Journal of Neutron Research, 23(2-3):185–200.
Zan, Y., Zhou, Y., Zhao, H., et al. (2020). Enhancing high-temperature strength of (B4C+ Al2O3)/Al designed for neutron absorbing materials by constructing lamellar structure. Composites Part B: Engineering, 183:107674.
Zhang, X., Yang, M., Zhang, X., et al. (2017). Enhancing the neutron shielding ability of polyethylene composites with an alternating multi-layered structure. Composites Science and Technology, 150:16–23.