An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Physics, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Modern Technologies, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran


Hot springs are known as one of the hydrotherapy centers in the world and have been welcomed due to their healing properties. Due to the presence of radon and radioactive elements in hot spring sediments, water and soil, these components are radioactive. So far, radiation hazards and the annual effective dose of hot spring components in the body organs have not been investigated in Iran. The purpose of this study was to calculate the amount of  U-238, Cs-137, Th-232, and K-40 elements in soil, water, and sediments of Jooshan hot springs in the Kerman region. The presence of these elements causes radiation hazards and an effective annual dose in people who use these hot springs. In addition to the healing properties of hot springs, the high amount of radiation hazard and effective annual dose may cause cancer risk. Experimental results with CsI(Tl) detector showed that the total activities of these elements in soil, water, and sediments of Jooshan hot spring were 95.26±9.76, 52.86±7.27, and 51.61±7.18 respectively. The Jooshan hot spring's radiation hazards were calculated using activity measurement of the radioactive elements in soil, water, and sediments which was less than the permission level. The result of the Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNPX code showed that the effective annual dose of sediment, water, and radon in Jooshan hot spring are 5.43E-06, 3.00×10-3 and 1.16×10-1 mSv.year-1 respectively, which is less than effective annual dose (5 mSv.year-1). The maximum time for treatment by hot spring water is considered equal to one year.


  • Calculating the U-238, Ra-226, Cs-137, Th-232, and K-40 activities in Jooshan hot spring.
  • Calculating the Jooshan hot spring radiation hazards parameters.
  • Calculating the effective annual dose of sediment, water and radon in Jooshan hot spring.
  • All radiation hazards parameters and effective annual dose are less than permission level


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