An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


1 Nuclear Engineering School, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Physics and Accelerators Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran, Iran


Primary standardization of radioactivity is related to the direct measurement of activity in radioactive decay. A large variety of primary standardization techniques have been developed in the past years. The photon-photon coincidence counting is one of the methods for activity determination. This method is particularly applied for the standardization of I-125 using the detection of X-ray and gamma-ray coincident counting. In this paper, a 2D photon-photon coincidence digital system with two similar ‎‎2'' × 2''‎‎ NaI(Tl) detectors for absolute activity measurement is developed. The system is established based on a 100 MHz CAEN waveform digitizer (DT5724) which directly records the pre-amplifier output signals of the two NaI(Tl) detectors. The sampled signals was transformed to trapezoidal signals using pulse height analyzer firmware and coincidence events were recorded in a list file. The list file was analyzed offline using a Matlab code to realize correlated gama lines of Co-60 source.  The Volkovitsky formulas were used for the activity calculation and the details of the experimental setup were also discussed. Standardization of  the two Co-60 standard sources was performed using this system. Results are in good agreement with the reference activity of Co-60 sources. The presented formula can be modified for absolute calibration of the other medical radioisotopes. The technique can be generalized for absolute activity measurement of I-125 which uses for ophthalmic plaque radiation therapy.


  • A 2D photon-photon coincidence digital system is designed using for the primary standardization of radionuclides.
  • 2D energy spectrum of Co-60 was measured.
  • The application of list mode data acquisition for absolute calibration was described.
  • Formulas for the activity measurement of cascade gamma-ray emitter radioisotopes were presented.


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