A peer-reviewed journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


Sungkyunkwan University, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Suwon, South Korea


A four-sector 14 MeV azimuthally varying field H-type cyclotron magnet has been designed for positron emission tomography (PET) at Sungkyunkwan University. Compactness, feasibility, and high performance are among the main factors that were considered in the design, which is ultimately intended made for use in hospitals and research institutes. After optimizing the initial parameters using the shimming method, an isochronous magnetic field along the cyclotron radius through Opera-3d was investigated. The particle trajectories were also illustrated. The Cyclone equilibrium orbit code program was used to examine the radial and axial betatron oscillations in relation to the cyclotron operating points. In addition, the integrated phase shift was explained and compared to the Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences 13 MeV cyclotron (KIRAMS-13). In conclusion, the final shape magnet satisfied the orbital stability requirements. The RF cavity, vacuum pump, and injection system could be employed efficiently, and a reliable agreement was reached between KIRAMS-13 and our design characterization.


• A 14 MeV AVF cyclotron magnet has been designed for PET scanning.

• The design parameters and fundamental theories of the sector-focused cyclotrons are discussed.

• Beam optics in low energy isochronous cyclotrons has been investigated using the Cyclone EO code.

• The calculation results were presented in comparison with different experimental studies.


Chautard, F. (2006). Beam dynamics for cyclotrons. IAEA (2009). International Atomic Energy Association, cyclotron produced radionuclides: physical characteristics and production methods. Technical Reports Series no., 468:53–62.
Jeong, I. and Yoon, M. (2008). Calculation and analysis of a self-shielded 13-MeV cyclotron magnetic field. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 53(9):3772–3776.
Kalkhoran, N. R., Afarideh, H., Solhju, R., et al. (2015). Design and simulation of 18 MeV cyclotron magnet by TOSCA code. In proceedings of the 12th International Computational Accelerators Physics Conference.
Lawrence, E. O., Edlefsen, N. E., and Lewis, G. N. (1930). On the production of high speed protons.
Lee, J., Ghergherehchi, M., Namgoong, H., et al. (2020). Characterization of beam dynamics for SKKUCY-10 cyclotron. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 468:71–80.
Livingood, J. J., Nostrand, D. V., and Zipf, T. F. (1962). Principles of cyclic particle accelerators. Physics Today, 15(5):57.
Milton, B. F. (1999). TRIUMF 4004 WESBROOK MALL, VANCOUVER, BC V6T 2A3.
Opera-3d (2019). Dassault Syst`emes, Opera-3d User Guide, OPERA3D TOSCA, http://operafea.com, COBHAM, UK Ltd, Kidlington, Oxfordshire, UK,.
Pashentsev, V. (2015). Production of radionuclides for cyclotron positron-emission tomography. Atomic Energy, 118(6):405–409.
Schmor, P. (2011). Review of cyclotrons for the production of radioactive isotopes for medical and industrial applications. In Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology: Volume 4: Accelerator Applications in Industry and the Environment, pages 103–116. World Scientific.
Shin, S., Yoon, M., Kim, E., et al. (2004). Measurement and analysis of a 13 MeV cyclotron magnetic field. JOURNALKOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY, 45:1045–1051.
Tanabe, J. T. (2005). Iron dominated electromagnets: design, fabrication, assembly and measurements. World Scientific Publishing Company.
Taufik, T., Hermanto, A., Anggraita, P., et al. (2014). Determination of magnet specification of 13 MeV proton cyclotron based on Opera 3D. Atom Indonesia, 40(2):69–75. Thomas, L. (1938). The paths of ions in the cyclotron I. orbits in the magnetic field. Physical Review, 54(8):580.
Turner, S. (1994). CAS CERN accelerator school: 5. General accelerator physics course. Vol. 2. Proceedings.
Zaremba, S. (2006). Magnets for cyclotrons.
Zaremba, S. and Kleeven, W. (2018). Cyclotrons: Magnetic design and beam dynamics. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.08961.
Zhang, T., Lu, Y., Yin, Z., et al. (2011). Overall design of CYCIAE-14, a 14 MeV PET cyclotron. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 269(24):2950–2954.