A peer-reviewed journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Nuclear Science Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Radioactive stents loaded with I-125 seeds have been widely used for the treatment of advanced esophageal cancer. Understanding the dose distribution of such stents before the clinical use is essential. This study provides a dosimetric investigation of I-125 seed-loaded stents based on the seed's arrangement and activity. ‎A cylindrical water equivalent phantom with an esophageal stent loaded with I-125 seeds, were employed. The seeds arrangements were determined based on the distance between the centers of two adjacent seeds (‎z‎‎) along the stent length. EBT3 films as well as Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit were used to obtain the dose distribution around the stent. By modeling the MIRD phantom, the dose delivered to the related organs at risk was calculated. The appropriate dose distribution is achieved for ‎‎z=15‎‎ mm, in which the absorbed dose at a depth of 5 mm reaches about 45% of the absorbed dose near the stent surface, thereby the therapeutic dose is delivered to the reference points. Both arrangements (‎z=15‎‎ and 20 mm) seemed to be clinically eligible and their utilization depends on the patient and the hospital facilities. Using esophageal stents with ‎z‎>20‎‎ mm is not recommended due to the presence of cold spots in the dose distribution. 


• 2-D and 3-D dose distributions of I-125 seed-loaded esophageal stents were obtained.

• The dose to the OARs was calculated by simulating a MIRD male phantom.

• Seed-loaded stents with 15-20 mm inter-seed spacing, show appropriate dose distributions.


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