An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Review Article


Reactor and nuclear safety school, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran, Iran


‎Both of small and medium sized reactors and small modular reactors are called SMRs‎. ‎They are reviewed and discussed in this paper‎, ‎particularly integral Pressurized Water Reactors (iPWRs)‎. ‎Studies show that PWRs are the most interested‎, ‎designed and constructed nuclear reactor type worldwide‎. ‎Some innovative small modular PWRs like the MASLWR‎, ‎NuScale‎, ‎CAREM-25‎, ‎SMART and ACP-100 have several outstanding characteristics to be promisingly recognized as near term options of the next generation of small modular PWRs‎. ‎They have several inherently safety features and improved passive safety system‎. ‎They require smaller infrastructure and capital costs‎. ‎They can be also developed rapidly in different and independent modular unites even for remote area or outlands without required infrastructure or electrical grids‎. ‎It should be noted that new modern economy strategies like the Return of Investment (ROI) issues may advice medium or large reactors rather than small units for developed and industrial countries while small modular plans can be much more interesting and accessible for new comers or even developing countries‎. ‎Finally‎, ‎multi-applicability is an appropriate solution to develop expensive nuclear power plants economically as well as multi-purpose research reactors (especially by means of small modular iPWRs)‎.


  • Comprehensive unique introduction and supplementary concepts.
  • Using and introducing valued international issues and documents.
  • Discussing about safety, operating performances, and economy coherently.
  • Introducing the most important SMRs via advantages and challenges.
  • Developing and innovative programs about SMRs especially multi-applications.


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