An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Nuclear Engineering‎, ‎Faculty of Advanced Science & Technologies‎, ‎University of Isfahan‎, ‎Isfahan‎, ‎Iran


‎In this paper‎, ‎the effect of anode's insert material on spatial distribution of X-ray emission zone of plasma focus device was studied‎. ‎Anode's insert materials were fabricated out of aluminum‎, ‎zinc‎, ‎tin‎, ‎tungsten and lead‎. ‎For each insert material at the constant operating voltage of 21 kV‎, ‎the image of pinhole camera which monitors the surface and the top of anode was recorded at the various pressures of 0.3‎, ‎0.6‎, ‎0.9 and 1.2 mbar‎. ‎The results indicated that the X-ray emission zone above the anode surface not only includes thermal radiation of plasma‎, ‎but also depends on anode's insert materials‎. ‎This zone could be due to the passage of high energy electrons from the vapor of anode's material above the anode's surface‎.


  • X-ray emitting zone changes with gas pressure and anode's insert metal.
  • Spatial distribution of X-rays from anode's surface depends on the characteristics of the electron beam.
  • Spatial distribution of X-rays from the plasma above the anode depends on properties of the working gas.
  • Size and intensity of X-ray source increases with atomic number of the insert materials.


Benedetti, L., Holder, J., Perkins, M., et al. (2016). Advances in X-ray framing cameras at the National Ignition Facility to improve quantitative precision in X-ray imaging. Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2):023511.

Da Re, A., Mezzetti, F., Tartari, A., et al. (2001). Preliminary study on X-ray source from plasma focus device for fast radiography. Nukleonika, 46(suppl. 1):123–125.

Harries, W. L., Lee, J. H., and McFarland, D. R. (1978). Trajectories of high energy electrons in a plasma focus. Plasma Physics, 20(2):95.

Hussain, S., Ahmad, S., Khan, M., et al. (2003a). Plasma focus as a high intensity flash X-ray source for biological radiography. Journal of Fusion Energy, 22(3):195–200.

Hussain, S., Zakaullah, M., Ali, S., et al. (2003b). X-ray enhancement from a plasma focus by inserting lead at the anode tip. Physics Letters A, 319(1-2):181–187.

Jain, J., Moreno, J., Avaria, G., et al. (2016). Characterization of X-ray pulses from a hundred joules plasma focus to study its effects on cancer cells. In Journal of Physics: Conference

Series, volume 720, page 012043. IOP Publishing. Kalaiselvi, S., Tan, T., Talebitaher, A., et al. (2014a). Lowenergy repetitive plasma focus based neon soft X-ray lithography source. In Advances in X-Ray/EUV Optics and Components IX, volume 9207, page 92070P. International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Kalaiselvi, S. M. P., Tan, T., Talebitaher, A., et al. (2014b). Optimization of neon soft X-ray emission from 200 j plasma

focus device for application in soft X-ray lithography. In International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series, volume 32, page 1460323. World Scientific.

Kanani, A., Shirani, B., Jabbari, I., et al. (2014). Assessment of image quality in X-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 101:59–65.

Kato, Y., Ochiai, I.,Watanabe, Y., et al. (1988). Plasma focus X-ray source for lithography. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics Processing and Phenomena, 6(1):195–198.

Lee, S. (2014). Plasma focus radiative model: Review of the lee model code. Journal of Fusion Energy, 33(4):319–335.

Miremad, S. M. and Bidabadi, B. S. (2018). Effect of inserted metal at anode tip on formation of pulsed X-ray emitting zone of plasma focus device. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 145:58–63.

Moreno, C. H., Clausse, A., Mart´ınez, J. F., et al. (2001). Ultrafast X-ray introspective imaging of metallic objects using a plasma focus. Nukleonika, 46.

Pavez, C., Zambra, M., Veloso, F., et al. (2014). Potentiality of a table top plasma focus as X-ray source: Radiographic applications. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 511, page 012028. IOP Publishing.

Raspa, V., Sigaut, L., Llovera, R., et al. (2004). Plasma focus as a powerful hard X-ray source for ultrafast imaging of moving metallic objects. Brazilian Journal of Physics, 34(4B):1696–1699.

Shafiq, M., Hussain, S., Waheed, A., et al. (2003). X-ray emission from a plasma focus with high-Z inserts at the anode tip. Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 12(2):199.

Tartari, A., Da Re, A., Mezzetti, F., et al. (2004). Feasibility of X-ray interstitial radiosurgery based on plasma focus device. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 213:607–610.

Venere, M., Moreno, C. H., Clausse, A., et al. (2001). Tomographic system based on plasma focus X-rays. Nukleonika, 46.