An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Nuclear Engineering‎, ‎Faculty of Engineering‎, ‎Islamic Azad University‎, ‎Science and Research Branch‎, ‎Tehran‎, ‎Iran.

2 Department of Medical Radiation Engineering‎, ‎Faculty of Engineering‎, ‎Islamic Azad University‎, ‎Science and Research Branch‎, ‎Tehran‎, ‎Iran.

Abstract

‎The concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in surface water and irrigation wells is measured using gamma ray spectrometry by HPGe detector‎. ‎Measurement was carried out for samples that were collected over seventeen points in Tehran city and its suburbs‎. ‎The samples were prepared in compliance with the principles from irrigation wells of city‎. ‎The specific radioactivity of Ra-226‎, ‎Th-232 and K-40 were measured and the results from different locations covered a range with the minimum being below "minimum detectable activity‎" ‎up to maximum of 4.04‎, ‎and 6.85 and 4.7 Bq per liter of water‎, ‎respectively‎. ‎The accumulation of radioactive materials in the samples from southern areas of Tehran was more than that of central areas‎. ‎Also‎, ‎concentration of Ra-226 in all the samples was less than the Derived Release Limit of Canada and Environmental Protection Agency standard threshold‎.

Highlights

  • Natural radioactivity of water resources in city of Tehran is measured.
  • A precisly calibrated HPGe detector has been employed.
  • Radioactivity concentration is higher at south part of Tehran.
  • Activity is mostly due to Th-232 and K-40 but little from Ra-226.
  • Results show that the whole activity is more than many countries but comparable with standards.

Keywords

Agbalagba, E. O. and Onoja, R. A. (2011). Evaluation of natural radioactivity in soil, sediment and water samples of Niger Delta (Biseni) flood plain lakes, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 102(7):667–671. 

Ahmed, N. K. (2004). Natural radioactivity of ground and drinking water in some areas of upper Egypt. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 28(6):345–354. 

Aksoy, A., Al-Jarallah, M., and Al-Haddad, M. N. (2002). Natural radioactivity in the scale of water well pipes. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 61(1):33–40. 

Bou-Rabee, F., Al-Zamel, A. Z., Al-Fares, R. A., et al. (2009). Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil industry (TENORM). Nukleonika, 54:3–9.

Cevik, U., Damla, N., Karahan, G., et al. (2005). Natural radioactivity in tap waters of Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 118(1):88–92.

Diab, H. M., Nouh, S. A., Hamdy, A., et al. (2008). Evaluation of natural radioactivity in a cultivated area around a fertilizer factory. Journal of Nuclear and Radiation Physics, 3(1):53–62.

Fatima, I., Zaidi, J. H., Arif, M., et al. (2006). Measurement of natural radioactivity in bottled drinking water in Pakistan and consequent dose estimates. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 123(2):234–240.

Godoy, J. M. and Godoy, M. L. (2006). Natural radioactivity in Brazilian groundwater. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 85(1):71–83.

IAEA (1989). Measurement of Radionuclides in Food and the Environment, A guide book. Technical Report Series No. 295, IAEA, Vienna.

Inoue, M., Yoshida, K., Minakawa, M., et al. (2012). Spatial variations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Cs-137, and Th-228 activities in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 104:75–80.

Todorovic, N., Nikolov, J., Forkapic, S., et al. (2012). Public exposure to radon in drinking water in Serbia. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 70(3):543–549.

UNSCEAR (2000). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee of Atomic Radiation report, pages 453–487.

Yussuf, N. M., Hossain, I., and Wagiran, H. (2012). Natural radioactivity in drinking and mineral water in Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Scientific Research and Essays, 7(9):1070–1075.

Zare, M. R., Kamali, M., Omidi, Z., et al. (2015). Evaluation of natural radioactivity content in high-volume surface water samples along the northern coast of Oman Sea using
portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 144:134–139.