An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State, Nigeria

2 Radiology Department, Medical Physics Unit, Federal Medical Centre Asaba, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria

3 Department of Physics, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

4 Department of Cancer Biology and Therapy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom


The study is aimed at measuring the outdoor background ionizing radiation (BIR), the absorbed dose rate (ADR), the annual effective dose (AED) and excessive lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) at four sites in the Aniocha South local government area (LGA) of Delta State, denoted as A-D. The study was performed using a calibrated Geiger-Muller (GM) detector (Radiation Alert Inspector) as well as a geographic positioning system (GPS) to determine the longitude and latitude of each site. The average (range) outdoor BIR, ADR, and AED were 0.021±0.01 (0.01-0.04) mR/hr, 181.6±77.7 (60.9-322.8) nGy/hr, and 0.22±0.10 (0.07-0.40) mSv/yr, respectively. Among the processing sites, the average AED for granite, bitumen, and staff residential areas were 0.31, 0.12, and 0.17 mSv/yr, while surface measurements at the "burnt stone" had the highest AED (0.41 mSv/yr). ADR and AED were both considerably higher than the world average of 59 nGy/hr and 0.07 mSv/yr. The average effective lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) (0.77× 10-3) was higher compared to the world average of (0.25× 10-3), with the highest in the granites. The ELCR risk band indicated a concern for increased cancer risk. Educating the public about actions to reduce their exposure to environmental carcinogens is necessary.


  • Granite and bitumen from different geographical location have different radiation levels.
  • Most workers in construction/material deposit sites are not aware of the impact of ionizing radiation.
  • The ADR was 3 times higher than the world average.
  • The effective lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was above the acceptable risk band (10−6 to 10−4).


Main Subjects

Abdel Gawad, A. E., Ali, K. G., Wahed, A. A. A., et al. (2022). Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk Associated with Granite Bearing Radioactive Minerals and Valuable Metals, Monqul Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt. Materials, 15(12):4307.
Abed, N. S., Monsif, M. A., Zakaly, H. M., et al. (2022). Assessing the radiological risks associated with high natural radioactivity of microgranitic rocks: A case study in a northeastern desert of Egypt. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1):473.
Ahmad, A. Y., Al-Ghouti, M. A., AlSadig, I., et al. (2019). Vertical distribution and radiological risk assessment of137cs and natural radionuclides in soil samples. Scientific Reports, 9(1):1–14.
Akerblom, G. and Mjones, L. (2000). Exposure to workers in Swedish quarrying. Swedish Radiation Protection Authority SE-171 16. Stockholm, Sweden.
Akpan, I., Amodu, A., Akpan, A., et al. (2011). An assessment of the major elemental composition and concentration in limestones samples from Yandev and Odukpani areas of Nigeria using nuclear techniques. Journal of Environmental Science and technology, 4(3):332–339.
Bory lo, A., Roma´ nczyk, G., and Skwarzec, B. (2017). Lichens and mosses as polonium and uranium biomonitors on Sobieszewo Island. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 311(1):859–869.
Degu Belete, G. and Alemu Anteneh, Y. (2021). General Overview of Radon Studies in Health Hazard Perspectives. Journal of Oncology, 2021.
Doyi, I., Essumang, D., Dampare, S., et al. (2017). Evaluation of radionuclides and decay simulation in a terrestrial environment for health risk assessment. Scientific Reports, 7(1):1–11.
EPA, U. (2014). Human Health Risk Assessment Homestake Mining Co. Superfund Site Cibola County, New Mexico: Risk and Site Assessment Section (6SF-TR). Region 6.
Gh, M., Paknahad, M., et al. (2019). Is induction of anomalies in lymphocytes of the residents of high background radiation areas associated with increased cancer risk? Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering, 9(3):367.
Health-Canada (2008). Safety Code 35: Safety Procedures for the Installation, Use and Control of X-Ray Equipment in Large Medical Radiological Facilities. Cat. No.: H128-1/08-545E. Ottawa (ON): Minister of Health.
Hobbs, J. B., Goldstein, N., Lind, K. E., et al. (2018). Physician knowledge of radiation exposure and risk in medical imaging. Journal of the American College of Radiology,
Ijabor, B. O., Omojola, A. D., Omojola, F. R., et al. (2022). Radiological assessment of petroleum products in Aniocha South Local Government Area of Delta State, South-South Nigeria. Radiation Protection and Environment, 45(1):33.
Isinkaye, M. and Emelue, H. (2015). Natural radioactivity measurements and evaluation of radiological hazards in sediment of Oguta Lake, South East Nigeria. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 8(3):459–469.
Jeelani, G., Hassan, W., Saleem, M., et al. (2021). Gamma dose monitoring to assess the excess lifetime cancer risk in western Himalaya. 328(1):245–258.
Joel, E., Omeje, M., Olawole, O., et al. (2021). In-situ assessment of natural terrestrial-radioactivity from Uranium-238 (U-238), Thorium-232 (Th-232) and Potassium-40 (K-40) in coastal urban-environment and its possible health implications. Scientific Reports, 11(1):1–14.
Kang, D., Lee, S. H., Kim, Y. J., et al. (2021). Development of Nationwide Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk Evaluation Methods with Comprehensive Past Asbestos Exposure Reconstruction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(6):2819.
Kapanadze, K., Magalashvili, A., and Imnadze, P. (2021). Radiological hazards assessment due to natural radioactivity in soils from Imereti region (Georgia). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14(12):1–9.
Magaji, B., Zubairu, M., Ladan, M., et al. (2020). Analysis of Limestone Samples from Deposits at Selected Nigeria Areas as a Potential Raw Material for the Production of Portland cement. International Journal of Modern Analytical and Separation Sciences, pages 14–27.
Mathuthu, M., Uushona, V., and Indongo, V. (2021). Radiological safety of groundwater around a uranium mine in Namibia. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 122:102915.
Missimer, T. M., Teaf, C., Maliva, R. G., et al. (2019). Natural radiation in the rocks, soils, and groundwater of Southern Florida with a discussion on potential health impacts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(10):1793.
Myatt, T. A., Allen, J. G., Minegishi, T., et al. (2010). Assessing exposure to granite countertopspart 1: radiation. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 20(3):273–280.
Nair, R. R. K., Rajan, B., Akiba, S., et al. (2009). Background radiation and cancer incidence in Kerala, India Karanagappally cohort study. Health Physics, 96(1):55–66.
Napoli, E., Bønsdorff, T. B., Jorstad, I. S., et al. (2021). Radon-220 diffusion from
224Ra-labeled calcium carbonate microparticles: Some implications for radiotherapeutic use. Plos One, 16(3):e0248133.
Okedeyi, A., Gbadebo, A., Arowolo, T., et al. (2012). Measurement of gamma radioactivity level in bedrocks and soils of quarry sites in ogun state, south-western, Nigeria. Research Journal of Physics, 6(2):59–65.
Omojola, A. D., Omojola, F. R., Akpochafor, M. O., et al. (2020). Shielding assessment in two computed tomography facilities in South-South Nigeria: How safe are the personnel and general public from ionizing radiation? The ASEAN Journal of Radiology, 21(2):5–27.
Onwuka, M. and Ononugbo, C. (2019). Radiometric Survey of Granitic Quarry Site of Ebony State, Nigeria. AIR, pages 1–9.
Orosun, M. M., Usikalu, M. R., Oyewumi, K. J., et al. (2019). Natural radionuclides and radiological risk assessment of granite mining field in Asa, North-central Nigeria. MethodsX, 6:2504–2514.
Oyedele, K. F., Oladele, S., and Emakpor, C. A. (2016). Exploration for limestone deposit at Onigbedu, South-Western Nigeria. Mater. Geoenviron, 63(2):139–150.
Qureshi, A. A., Tariq, S., Din, K. U., et al. (2014). Evaluation of excessive lifetime cancer risk due to natural radioactivity in the rivers sediments of Northern Pakistan. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 7(4):438–447.
Roy, D., Siraz, M., Dewan, M., et al. (2022). Assessment of terrestrial radionuclides in the sandy soil from Guliakhali beach area of Chattogram, Bangladesh. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 331(3):1299–1307.
Samuel, O. O. (2018). Radiation exposure level in some granite quarry sites within ohimini and Gwer-East Local Government Areas of Benue State Nigeria. Insights Med Phys, 2(3):12.
Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D., Gholami, M., and Setayandeh, S. (2013). A review on natural background radiation. Advanced Biomedical Research, 2.
Sievert, R. and Failla, G. (1959). Recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection. Health Physics (England), 2.
Slovic, P. (2012). The perception gap: Radiation and risk. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 68(3):67–75.
Sudheer, K., Mohammad Koya, P., Prakash, A. J., et al. (2022). Evaluation of risk due to chronic low dose ionizing radiation exposure on the birth prevalence of congenital heart diseases (CHD) among the newborns from high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast, India. Genes and Environment, 44(1):1–10.
UNSCEAR (1993). United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations sales publication E.94.IX.2. United Nations, New York.
UNSCEAR (2000). Effects of ionizing radiation. United Nations, New York, pages 453–487.
Yousef, H. A., Korany, K., Mira, H. I., et al. (2019). The annual effective dose of granite rock samples using alpha track detector. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 12(1):112–117.