An international journal published by K. N. Toosi University of Technology

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Physics, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran, Iran


The buildup factor is becoming a required parameter for exposure and energy absorption in the area of radiation physics for shielding, dosimetry, health physics and medical physics. In this research, photon buildup for dysprosium doped lithium magnesium borate glasses system has been investigated. Photon energy absorption buildup factors and photon exposure buildup factors were computed for the chosen glasses using the five-parameter geometric progression fitting method in energy range of 0.015 MeV to 15 MeV. ‎Also, effective and equivalent atomic numbers were calculated for these compositions and discussed for possible implementation in radiation dosimetry. ‎


• Four different compositions of the dysprosium doped lithium magnesium borate glasses system are investigated.

• Various factors for selected glasses system is calculated using the five-parameter geometric progression fitting method.

• The G-P fitting method is beneficial technique for low-Z as well as high-Z element materials


Ab Rasid, A., Wagiran, H., Hashim, S., et al. (2015). Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass irradiated by 6 MV photons. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 112:29–33.

Akman, F., Durak, R., Turhan, M. F., et al. (2015). Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities from mass attenuation coefficients near the K edge in some samarium compounds. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 101:107–113.

Akman, F., Ka¸cal, M. R., Akman, F., et al. (2017). Determination of effective atomic numbers and electron densities from mass attenuation coefficients for some selected complexes containing lanthanides. Canadian Journal of Physics, 95(10):1005–1011.

Al-Buriahi, M. S. and Tonguc, B. T. (2019). Study on gammaray buildup factors of bismuth borate glasses. Applied Physics A, 125(7):1–7.

Al-Hinai, K. H., Mohd, N. B., Zulkepely, N. R., et al. (2013). A search for novel thermoluminescent radiation dosimeter media. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 82:126–129.

ANS (1991). American Nuclear Society, American National Standard for Gamma-ray Attenuation Coefficients and Buildup Factors for Engineering Materials. American Nuclear Society. Working Group ANS-6.4. 3.

Cameron, J. R., Suntharalingam, N., and Kenney, G. N. (1968). Thermoluminescent dosimetry.

Dong, M., Xue, X., Elmahroug, Y., et al. (2019). Investigation of shielding parameters of some boron containing resources for gamma ray and fast neutron. Results in Physics, 13:102129.

Fernandez, S. D. S., Garc´ıa-Salcedo, R., Mendoza, J. G., et al. (2016). Thermoluminescent characteristics of LiF: Mg, Cu, P and CaSO4: Dy for low dose measurement. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 111:50–55.

Gowda, S., Krishnaveni, S., Yashoda, T., et al. (2004). Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds. Pramana, 63(3):529–541.

Han, I. and Demir, L. (2009). Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers for Cr, Fe and Ni alloys at different energies. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 267(1):3–8.

Harima, Y. (1983). An approximation of gamma-ray buildup factors by modified geometrical progression. Nuclear Science and Engineering, 83(2):299–309.

Hashim, S., Mhareb, M., Ghoshal, S., et al. (2015). Luminescence characteristics of Li2O–MgO–B2O3 doped with Dy3+ as a solid TL detector. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 116:138–141.

Hashim, S., Omar, R., and Ghoshal, S. (2019). Realization of dysprosium doped lithium magnesium borate glass based TLD subjected to 1–100 Gy photon beam irradiations. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 163:1–10.

Jackson, D. F. and Hawkes, D. J. (1981). X-ray attenuation coefficients of elements and mixtures. Physics Reports, 70(3):169–233.

Jung, H., Lee, K. J., and Kim, J.-L. (2003). A personal thermoluminescence dosimeter using LiF: Mg, Cu, Na, Si detectors for photon fields. Applied radiation and isotopes, 59(1):87–93.

Junot, D. O., dos Santos, M. A. C., Antonio, P. L., et al. (2014). Feasibility study of CaSO4: Eu, CaSO4: Eu, Ag and CaSO4: Eu, Ag (NP) as thermoluminescent dosimeters. Radiation measurements, 71:99–103.

Kaginelli, S., Rajeshwari, T., Sharanabasappa, B., et al. (2009). Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material. Journal of Medical Physics/Association of Medical Physicists of India, 34(3):176.

Kavaz, E. and Yorgun, N. Y. (2018). Gamma ray buildup factors of lithium borate glasses doped with minerals. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 752:61–67.

Kortov, V. (2007). Materials for thermoluminescent dosimetry: Current status and future trends. Radiation Measurements, 42(4-5):576–581.

Kucuk, N., Manohara, S., Hanagodimath, S., et al. (2013). Modeling of gamma ray energy-absorption buildup factors for thermoluminescent dosimetric materials using multilayer perceptron neural network: A comparative study. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 86:10–22.

Kumar, M., Rakesh, R., Sneha, C., et al. (2016). Beta response of CaSO4: Dy based thermoluminescent dosimeter badge and its angular dependence studies for personnel monitoring applications. Radiation Protection and Environment, 39(3):132.

Laopaiboon, R. and Bootjomchai, C. (2015). Physical properties and thermoluminescence of glasses designed for radiation dosimetry measurements. Materials & Design, 80:20–27.

Mahmoud, K., Sayyed, M., and Tashlykov, O. (2019). Gamma ray shielding characteristics and exposure buildup factor for some natural rocks using mcnp-5 code. Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 51(7):1835–1841.

Mann, K. S., Kurudirek, M., and Sidhu, G. (2012). Verification of dosimetric materials to be used as tissue-substitutes in radiological diagnosis. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 70(4):681–691.

Manohara, S., Hanagodimath, S., and Gerward, L. (2010). Energy absorption buildup factors for thermoluminescent dosimetric materials and their tissue equivalence. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 79(5):575–582.

Manohara, S., Hanagodimath, S., Gerward, L., et al. (2011). Exposure buildup factors for heavy metal oxide glass: a radiation shield. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 59(2):2039–2042.

Mhareb, M. H. S. A. (2015). Dosimetric Properties of Lithium Magnesium Borate Glasses Doped with Dysprosium and Phosphorus Oxide for Radiation Dose Measurement. PhD thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Omar, R., Wagiran, H., and Saeed, M. (2016). Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate glass subjected to Co-60 gamma ray. In AIP Conference Proceedings, volume 1704, page 040004. AIP Publishing LLC.

Onder, P., Tur¸sucu, A., Demir, D., and G¨urol, A. (2012). Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 292:1–10.

Ramli, N., Salleh, H., Mahdiraji, G. A., et al. (2015). Characterization of amorphous thermoluminescence dosimeters for patient dose measurement in X-ray diagnostic procedures. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 116:130–134.

S¸akar, E., ¨Ozpolat, ¨ O. F., Alım, B., et al. (2020). Phy-X/PSD: development of a user friendly online software for calculation of parameters relevant to radiation shielding and dosimetry. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 166:108496.

Shivaramu, R. A. and Ramprasath, V. (1999). Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction. Nuclear Science And Engineering, 132:148–153.

Singh, V. and Badiger, N. (2015). Energy-absorption buildup factors, effective atomic numbers and air kerma for human body parts, vitamins and tissue substitutes. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 303(3):1983–1990.

Singh, V. P. and Badiger, N. (2014). Comprehensive study on energy absorption buildup factors and exposure buildup factors for photon energy 0.015 to 15 MeV up to 40 mfp penetration depth for gel dosimeters. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 103:234–242.

Singh, V. P., Badiger, N., Chanthima, N., et al. (2014a). Evaluation of gamma-ray exposure buildup factors and neutron shielding for bismuth borosilicate glasses. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 98:14–21.

Singh, V. P., Medhat, M., and Badiger, N. (2014b). Assessment of exposure buildup factors of some oxide dispersion strengthened steels applied in modern nuclear engineering and designs. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 270:90–100.

Singh, V. P., Medhat, M., and Badiger, N. (2015). Photon energy absorption coefficients for nuclear track detectors using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 106:83–87.

Wood, J. (1982). Computational methods in reactor shielding. Elsevier.